Online survey of small-scale domestic cannabis - part of an international research collaboration - The Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC)

  • Research program: Harm reduction policy and strategies
  • Project status: Current
  • Start date: August 2011
  • Expected end date: December 2019
  • Completion date:
  • Funded by: Unfunded
  • Lead organisation: University of Ghent

Historically, cannabis plantations, like coca bush or opium poppy plantations, were typically large in size, grown by local farmers in a handful of developing (producing) countries, processed and then exported to industrial (consuming) nations. However, increasingly over at least the last decade in a number of countries there has been a shift in the cannabis market away from cannabis which is imported from producer countries to domestic production of cannabis. This shift seems to have been facilitated by the development of cannabis growing technology and importantly indoor cultivation of cannabis by 'hydroponic' methods. Of particular interest in this context is the proliferation of small-scale user/growers who cultivate the drug for their own use and/or for a small group of friends. This study is part of an international collaboration will comprise an anonymous web survey of Australian small-scale cannabis cultivators. It will aim to collect information on the patterns of cultivation, some technical aspects of growing operations, (dis)advantages of cannabis cultivation, and perceived quality and strength of home-grown cannabis. Its first survey in 10 countries was conducted in 2014 and 2015 and reached 6530 cannabis growers. Since then the survey was run in 2 more countries. The group is revising the survey to run it in 2019-2020 in 13 countries and 10 languages

Name & Contact Details Role Research Program Location
  • Co-investigator: Monica Barratt, University of New South Wales

Decorte, T., Lenton, S. and Wilkins, C. (eds.) Legalizing Cannabis: experiences, lessons and scenarios. Routledge. [In Press] [M105] Abstract

Sznitman, S., Barratt, M., J., Decorte, T., Hakkarainen, P., Lenton, S., Potter, G., R., Werse, B. and Wilkins, C. Do medical cannabis growers attempt to produce more potent cannabis products than recreational growers? Drugs and Alcohol Today. [In Press] [RJ1491]

Decorte, T., Malm, A., Sznitman, S., Hakkarainen, P., Barratt, M., J., Potter, G., R., Werse, B., Kamphausen, G., Lenton, S. and Frank, V., A. (2019). The challenges and benefits of analyzing feedback comments in surveys: Lessons from a cross-national online survey of small-scale cannabis growers. Methodological Innovations. DOI: 10.1177%2F2059799119825606 [RJ1453] View web page

Hakkarainen, P., Decorte, T., Sznitman, S., Karjalainen, K., Barratt, M., J., Frank, V., A., Lenton, S., Potter, G., Werse, B. and Wilkins, C. (2019). Examining the blurred boundaries between medical and recreational cannabis - results from an international study of small-scale cannabis cultivators. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy, 26, (3), pp. 250-8. DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2017.1411888 [RJ1329] View web page

Lenton, S., Frank, V., A., Barratt, M., J., Potter, G., R. and Decorte, T. (2018). Growing practices and the use of potentially harmful chemical additives among a sample of small scale cannabis growers in three countries. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 192, pp. 250-256. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.07.040 [RJ1360] View web page

Wilkins, C., Sznitman, S., Decorte, T., Hakkarainen, P. and Lenton, S. (2018). Characteristics of cannabis cultivation in New Zealand and Israel. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 18, (2), pp. 90-98. DOI: 10.1108/ DAT-03-2018-0010 [RJ1410] View web page

Potter, G., Barratt, M., J., Malm, A., Bouchard, M., Blok, T., Christensen, A., Decorte, T., Frank, V., A., Hakkarainen, P., Klein, A., Lenton, S., Perälä, J., Werse, B. and Wouters, M. (2016). Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: Sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries. In Werse, B. and Bernard, C. (eds.) Friendly Business - International Views on Social Supply, Self-Supply and Small-Scale Drug Dealing. Springer VS, Stuttgart. pp. 163-196. [CH209] View web page

Barratt, M., J. and Lenton, S. (2015). Representativeness of online purposive sampling with Australian cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, (3), pp. 323-326. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.10.007 [RJ1026] View web page

Barratt, M., J., Potter, G., Wouters, M., Wilkins, C., Werse, B., Perälä, J., Pedersen, M., M., Nguyen, H., Malm, A., Lenton, S., Korf, D., Klein, A., Heyde, J., Hakkarainen, P., Frank, V., A., Decorte, T., Bouchard, M. and Blok, T. (2015). Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, (3), pp. 238-249. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004 [RJ1049] View web page

Hakkarainen, P., Frank, V., A., Barratt, M., J., Dahl, H., V., Decorte, T., Karjalainen, K., Lenton, S., Potter, G. and Werse, B. (2015). Growing medicine: Small-scale cannabis cultivation for medical purposes in six different countries. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, (3), pp. 250-256. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.07.005 [RJ1013] View web page

Lenton, S., Frank, V., A., Barratt, M., J. and Potter, G. (2015). Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, (3), pp. 257-266. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.08.002 [RJ1015] View web page

Potter, G., Barratt, M., J., Malm, A., Bouchard, M., Blok, T., Christensen, A., Decorte, T., Frank, V., A., Hakkarainen, P., Klein, A., Lenton, S., Perälä, J., Werse, B. and Wouters, M. (2015). Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: Sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26, (3), pp. 226-237. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.007 [RJ1014] View web page

Barratt, M., J., Bouchard, M., Decorte, T., Frank, V., A., Hakkarainen, P., Lenton, S., Malm, A., Nguyen, H. and Potter, G. (2012). Understanding global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 12, (4), pp. 213-221. [RJ872]