The following summary of results provides a brief, simplified version of multilevel modelling analysis of the SHAHRP study data. There are several peer reviewed journal publications which provide scientific analysis and discussion of the results.

The summary of results provided in the following Table shows that the SHAHRP program had an impact on alcohol related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours early in the programs with some maintenance of impact one year after the second phase of the program had been completed. Although these results show the statistical difference between the two groups, the practical significance of the program is demonstrated through the percentage difference in support of the program. The percentage differences indicate the SHAHRP students had: greater alcohol related knowledge, lower level of total and risky consumption; and lower levels of harm associated with alcohol use.

The Results of the SHAHRP Study to date
  After phase one
(13 year olds)
After phase two
(14 year olds)
One year after phase two
(no lessons)
(15 year olds)
Knowledge X
Attitudes X
Consumption Total X
Consumption Risky X
Context of use X
Harm associated with own use X
Harm associated with other's use    

X significant statistical difference between control and SHAHRP students in favour of the SHAHRP program. The summary of results is based on analysis using multilevel modelling (McBride et al: 2004).

Control School Alcohol Education

Control students were not isolated from alcohol education during the period of the study. Students in each control school participated in alcohol education classes during the second phase of the study as part of each school’s regular health education curriculum. Generally these alcohol education classes did not go beyond one term (10 weeks) with most of the control schools provided less than one term of alcohol education. A range of resources were used to generate alcohol education lessons in control schools including the Western Australian K-10 health education curriculum alcohol education support materials, ‘Rethinking Drinking’ resource, ‘How Will You Feel Tomorrow’ resource, and School Drug Education Project pilot lessons. Several schools used a combination of lessons and activities from a number of sources. Table 1 provides a summary of the resources used by control schools in their alcohol education of students.

Table 1 Control School Alcohol Education
Resource Control Schools using this resource/s
K-10 health education 1
Combination of K-10 and some Rethinking Drinking activities 3
Rethinking Drinking 1
Combination of K-10, Rethinking Drinking and How Will You Feel Tomorrow activities 2
Pilot School Drug Education Project lessons 1

How to obtain behaviour change in students

To maximise effectiveness when using the SHAHRP program it is important to teach the program as closely as possible to how it is documented in the teacher manual. The student change that came about in the main study was based on teaching the program to at least 80% as documented. The study teachers also received training in the delivery of the program to students. Two days of training were conducted for phase one, one day of training for phase two, and one day of training for phase three. The training involved an overview of the research background and program development. In addition, teachers participated in each activity to model how the activity should be taught and allowed teachers to assess implementation and management requirements.